Anatomy II (Human)

Anatomy II (Human)

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Online & Correspondence
100 Hours

Anatomy is and was the starting point of scientific investigation of the human body. Without an understanding of structure we cannot fully understand function, for it is the structure and interrelation of body parts that permits their function.

Anatomy is an Important Foundation

Anatomy is and was the starting point of scientific investigation of the human body.  Without an understanding of structure we cannot fully understand function, for it is the structure and interrelation of body parts that permits their function.  In order to study anatomy, it is important to understand the different medical/scientific terms that are used to indicate location, relationship, components, numbers and so on.  Key terms are listed in the following tables, some will be familiar, but should be reviewed along with new terms, to ensure you are able to fully understand this course.

Parts of The Body

Each body region has a specific function and houses specific structures, be that tissues, organs or glands, that enable the performance of the functions or are the reason for the functions.

The head contains the brain and pituitary gland which are protected by the skull. It also contains specific organs for all of the five senses, the nose, eyes, mouth and ears as well as skin, which are protected by facial structures, including the facial bones. The initial parts of the digestive system are also located in the head; the salivary glands, the oral cavity and the teeth. The orifices required for respiration as well as immune glands such as the tonsils are all located in the head.

The torso contains the majority of the vital organs (the exception being the brain, which is located in the head). It is divided into cavities housing sets of organs and also contains the major blood vessels, all protected by bones such as the ribs and verterbrae or muscle tissues.

The limbs attach to the torso and extend from it. They contain no vital organs but do contain some large blood vessels (brachial and femoral arteries).

  • Vital organs
  • The brain, heart and liver. These are the organs that must be working in order for the human body to remain alive.
  • Critical organs

These are organs which are partially redundant, you can survive if they are partially non-functional, or if one of the pair is not working. Kidneys and lungs are critical organs.

  • Accessory organs

These are organs that improve function, health and quality of life, but are not essential to life. The spleen, eyes, ovaries are all accessory organs.

Looking Inside the Body

Medical imaging is particularly useful for studying the anatomy and in some cases physiology of deep structures and organs. It provides a non-invasive, generally safe option to often very invasive surgical investigations. There are a variety of imaging techniques currently in use today.

Example: X-Ray

The first imaging technique used in medicine. This involves the exposure of the body to electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation is produced by the movement of electrons in atoms. Some movements release energy in the form of photons which can then be absorbed by other atoms. The soft tissues of the body are made up primarily of small atoms, like hydrogen (1 electron), carbon (6 electrons) and oxygen (8 electrons) and do not absorb photons well. The hard tissues, such as bone are made of larger atoms, like calcium (20 electrons) which aborb photons much more readily. This is how the x-ray distinguishes bones from surrounding soft-tissues and why bones appear on the x-ray while areas of soft tissue do not.

  • Describe the importance of the following structures of the eye: eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows.
  • What structures form the oral cavity?
  • Briefly describe their importance.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, outline and describe otitis media and its causes.
  • Besides the eyes, ear, and mouth; what other structures can be studied without a microscope ? List at least ten.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, describe the three basic functions of the nervous system that are necessary to maintain homeostasis.
  • Using reference materials or the internet, distinguish between grey and white matter and describe where they are found and their differences. Using the internet or other reference material define the following: resting membrane potential, depolarization, repolarization, polarized membrane, nerve impulse, depolarized membrane, repolarized membrane, and refractory period.
  • List and describe the structure of the four principle parts of the brain.
  • Compare and contrast neurons and neuroglia, describing both structure and function.
  • List the names and locations of the principal body cavities and their major organs.
  • List the names and locations of the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.
  • In which quadrant would you feel the pain from appendicitis?
  • From an inflamed liver or gallbladder problems? Problems with the sigmoid colon? Problems with the spleen?
  • Using the internet or otherreference materials find a sample image of the listed medical imaging techniques.

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